Warping Factor/Angle calculation in Finite Element Analysis (2023)

Warping of an Element:

  • Ideally all the nodes of quadrilateral element should lie onthe same plane but at curvatures and complicated geometry profiles it is not possible. "Measure of out of planeness of a Quadrilateral is Warping Factor or WarpingAngle".

  • Warping calculationfor triangular elements is not applicable, since three points define a plane, this check only applies to quads.

Warping Angle:

  • It is defined as angle between normals of two (triangular) planes formed by splitting the quad element along diagonals.

  • MaximumAngle out of the two possibilities is reported as "Warp Angle".

  • In the case of solid elements, an element'sface deviates from being planar. The quad is divided into two trias along its diagonal, and the angle between the trias normals is measured.

  • Ideal Value = 0° ( Acceptable < 5°to 10°)

  • Assume a Quad element is formed with Nodes:1,2,3 &4

  • Split the Quad using the two diagonals (1,3 & 2,4) into triangles as shown below.

    (Video) How to Calculate Element Quality Criteria in Ansys Meshing, Warping Factor, Warping Angle - Part 01

Warping Factor/Angle calculation in Finite Element Analysis (1)
Warping Factor/Angle calculation in Finite Element Analysis (2)
  • Plane-1 is formed from nodes: 1,2 &4 and Plane-2 is formed from nodes: 2,3 &4

  • Calculate normals to Plane-1 & Plane-2 as “n1 & n2”. Find the Angle between n1 & n2 and mark it as Θ1.

  • Similarly, for Plane-3 & Plane-4 find the angle between normal n3 & n4 and mark it as Θ2.

  • Maximum of the two Angles Θ1 & Θ2 is Reported as "Warping Angle".

Warping Factor:

  • Some of the Finite Element Softwares calls the Out of Planeness of an element as Warping Factor instead of Warping Angle.

  • Ideal value of Warping Factor=0 (Acceptable: 0 to 1)

  • Warping Factor is calculated by the following procedure:

(Video) Warp Analysis Results with and Without Constrains
Warping Factor/Angle calculation in Finite Element Analysis (3)
  • Find the common Normal to the two diagonals (Vectors) AC & BD with vector cross product or by using 3D-Geometry principles.

  • Then generate two planes perpendicular to common Normal and passing through A,C and B,D.

  • These two planes containing AC in one plane BD in other plane are parallel to each other.

Warping Factor/Angle calculation in Finite Element Analysis (4)
  • Construct an Average Plane between these two planes.

    (Video) Tetrahedral Meshes with Good Dihedral Angles

  • The projection of Nodes on this average plane are A’B’C’ and D’ respectively and it forms A’B’C’D’ Quadrilateral.

  • The distance of Nodes from Average plane is same i.e., AA’=BB’=CC’=DD’=h

  • Now, find the difference in of heights of nodes of Edge with respect to Average plane.

  • Difference in Nodal height of Edge AB is h-(-h)=2h (Distance between two parallel planes).

  • Find the area ( A ) of the Quadrilateral (A’B’C’D’) formed on the Avg. Plane with the projections of Actual Nodes (A,B,C and D).

  • The Warping Factor is the Ratio between the Distance of Nodes in the direction of Avg. Normal (2h)and Square root of the Area of the Element projected on to the Avg. Normal Plane √A.

So, the Warping Factor= 2h/√A

  • For a flat Quadrilateral, h=0. So, Warping Factor=0.


  1. Finite Element Analysis For Design Engineers by Paul M. Kurowski (Chapter 5.3.1).

  2. Practical Finite Element Analysis by Nitin S Gokhale, Sanjay S Deshpande, Sanjeev V Bedekar and Anand N Thite (Chapter 7.9).

  3. The Finite Element Method : Practical Course by G. R. Liu , S. S. Quek (Chapter 11.4.2).

  4. Ansys theory reference manual.

  5. Hypermesh users guide.

(Video) CE 414 Lecture 34: Lateral Torsional Buckling & Moment Gradient Modifiers (2021.04.09)

Note (**): Ansys, Hypermesh are Registered trademarks of their respective owners.


What is the ideal value of warping factor? ›

The best possible quadrilateral warping factor, for a flat quadrilateral, is zero.

What is warp angle in FEM? ›

Warp Angle (FEM mode) Warp Angle is a way to measure how far is a quadrilateral element from being planar. When you check your mesh, Creo Simulate uses the Warp Angle quality measures to highlight elements exceeding the maximum warp angle.

What is warpage in finite element analysis? ›

It is defined as angle between normals of two (triangular) planes formed by splitting the quad element along diagonals. Maximum Angle out of the two possibilities is reported as "Warp Angle". In the case of solid elements, an element's face deviates from being planar.

What does warpage value mean? ›

Warpage is calculated by dividing the actual measured amount that the tile deviates from flatness by the length of the edge or diagonal, then multiplying by 100 to get a percentage. In the American National Standard for tile manufacturing, ANSI A137.

How is warping calculated? ›

= Weight in pounds/ Number of ends,
  1. Or, Weight of warp in pound × count × 840. ...
  2. Or, Weight of warp in pound × count. ...
  3. Total length of yarn in the warp, Length of warp × No. ...
  4. Weight of warp in pounds, Length of warp in yds × no. ...
  5. Or, ...
  6. Number of ends in the warp, ...
  7. Or, ...
  8. Count of warp or beam count,
Apr 1, 2017

How is warping constant calculated? ›

torsional moment of inertia It : is calculated as the polar moment, It = Iy + Iz, except for rectangular sections (see the remark at the end of this topic) warping constant Iw is equal to 0. shear centre : dy, dz are equal to 0.
It for rectangular cross-sections.
4 more rows

What is warp angle? ›

Warp Angle is a way to measure how far is a quadrilateral element from being planar. When you check your mesh, Creo Simulate uses the Warp Angle quality measures to highlight elements exceeding the maximum warp angle.

What is the wrap angle? ›

What is Wrap Angle? Wrap Angle is a measurement in degrees of the diameter of a sensor roller that the tensioned material contacts. Most tension sensing rollers have a minimum and maximum wrap angle they are compatible with.

What are the different types of warp? ›

The three types of warp are cup, bow and crook. Following an introduction to wood shrinkage, each type of warp will be discussed In terms of its causes, likely locations in a log from which lumber might suffer from it, and preventative measures which can alleviate the warping problem, where possible.

How do you solve warpage problems? ›

Solution: Increase mold temperature based on the resin supplier's recommendations and adjust accordingly. In order to allow the process to re-stabilize, operators should allow 10 cycles for every 10 degree change. Uneven mold temperatures cause molecules to cool and shrink at an uneven rate, resulting in mold warpage.

What parameters affect warpage? ›

external or internal stresses, pressure, etc. anisotropy of stresses or other polymer properties or orientation can lead to warpage.

How do you minimize warpage? ›

Reduce warpage by providing less leverage for the shrinkage forces to pull the plates out of alignment. Balance welds around the neutral axis. Welding on both sides of the plate offsets one shrinkage force with another, to minimize warpage (Figure 4). Use the backstep welding technique.

How do I find my warpage? ›

Warpage is generally measured by detecting a target at three points. Measurement is also possible by moving a target with a point-type sensor, or by directly measuring the shape by projecting a laser in a horizontal line.

What is the difference between shrinkage and warpage? ›

Shrinkage is defined as a change in size. Warpage is a change in shape.

What is warping with example? ›

Warping is the process of combining yarns from different cones together to form a sheet. The important point in the warping is to preserve the yarn elongation and maintain it at uniform level. This is done to achieve a better performance during weaving in terms of low end breakage rate.

How is warp and weft cover factor calculated? ›

In cotton system cloth cover in particular direction (warp cover factor or weft cover factor) is calculated by taking the ration of threads per inch and square root of the yarn count (cotton count/English count).

What is the unit for warping constant? ›

Generally, the centimetre (cm) is used for the calculated properties. For surface areas, the metre (m) is used and for the warping constant (H), the decimetre (dm) is used.

What is the formula for torsional constant for angle? ›

(Torsional spring constant α is defined by the relation J=−αθ, where J is the restoring couple and θ the angle of twist).

How do you find the torsion constant k? ›

From its definition, we see that the torsion constant may be obtained by plotting a graph of torque vs. angular displacement and calculating the slope. Κ = I 2Tπ . The STATIC METHOD and DYNAMIC METHOD can be performed in either order, but you must use the same rod in both parts of the experiment.

Is warp horizontal or vertical? ›

Warp is the long yarn that runs vertically up and down the roll of fabric, this governs the vertical pattern repeat. Regardless of fabric width. Weft is the yarn that passes horizontally across the fabric roll, generally is it shorter and governs the horizontal pattern repeat.

What is warp function? ›

A WARP (Warning, Advice and Reporting Point) is a community-based service where members can receive and share up-to-date advice on information security threats, incidents and solutions.

What is warp length? ›

Length of warp equals: length of project(s) plus length of samples plus take up plus fringe not included in loom waste plus loom waste.

What does angle R mean? ›

∠r = angle of reflection. Angle of incidence is the angle between an incident ray and the normal. Angle of refraction is the angle between a refracted ray and the normal. Angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection.

How many warp factors are there? ›

It was not until the 2003 episode "First Flight" of Star Trek: Enterprise, that the warp factor scale made an official on screen debut. Warp factors from 1 to 5 were depicted with their corresponding relative speed values on a large computer graphic. At warp 1, a starship would reach c; at warp 6, it would reach 216 c.

What is the highest warp factor? ›

The warp drive has a natural physical or economical limit beyond which higher speeds are no longer possible. The reference work Star Trek Fact Files indicates this limit at warp factor 9.99. This is the highest conventional warp speed mentioned for a spaceship (Borg cube).

What are the two options for warping an object? ›

There are different methods for warping objects in Illustrator. You can use a preset warp shape, or you can make an "envelope" out of an object you create on the artboard. Let's look at both.

Why is it necessary to avoid warpage? ›

A warped part – also known as deformation – can bend or twist due to uneven shrinkage rates or by a mechanical force, such as during ejection. Your injection molding manufacturer must be well aware of the ways to avoid warpage, as it can result in expensive alterations to the tooling or material.

How do you prevent warpage and distortion? ›

Weld the assembly from inside to outside to avoid high shrinking stresses. Avoid the need to force, spring, or restrain components during welding. Avoid over-welding and use as few weld passes as possible. Continuously weld thick sections; however, thin sections may benefit from staggered welding.

What are the causes for warpage? ›

The underlying cause of warpage is deceptively simple: variations in shrinkage. Simply put, if a part shrinks perfectly uniformly in all directions, it becomes smaller but retains the correct shape.

What tools are used to measure warpage? ›

The metrology instruments used to measure warpage and waviness on a surface include dial gauges, surface profilers, and coordinate measuring machines (CMMs).

What is warpage of elements? ›

These areas are then compared to one half of the area of the quadrilateral. Warpage: this is the amount by which an element (or in the. case of solid elements, an element face) deviates from being. planar.

What are the methods to minimize the warping and distortion of welded components? ›

14 Tips to Minimize Welding Distortion
  • Size of Weld. It's important to avoid overwelding. ...
  • Intermittent Welding. ...
  • Fewer Weld Passes. ...
  • Welding Placement. ...
  • Balance Around the Neutral Axis. ...
  • Backstep Welding Technique. ...
  • Presetting Parts. ...
  • Alternate Welding Sequence.
Aug 5, 2017

How can distortion warping and cracking be controlled? ›

Heating the part evenly in an oven or through alternative means can help reduce distortion. Strong work holding solutions that hold parts firmly in place can also assist with distortion. Increasing the amount of a material that the heat can flow into around a weld can also dramatically help reduce distortion.

What is the maximum warpage on a cylinder head? ›

It states that warpage must be no greater than . 035mm (. 0012 in.). The maximum grinding limit to correct a warped cylinder head is .

What is warpage troubleshoot this defect? ›

Description: Warping (or warpage) is the deformation that occurs when there is uneven shrinkage in the different parts of the molded component. The result is a twisted, uneven, or bent shape where one was not intended. Causes: Warping is usually caused by non-uniform cooling of the mold material.

Is warping a defect? ›

Warping Defects or Faults:

The main object of warping is to accelerate the next processes for woven fabric manufacturing (such as sizing drafting, denting) in textile industry. If there any faults produced, then total process will be hampered. Ultimately, the required quality fabric can't be achieved.

What are the two instruments used to measure the warpage of the flywheel? ›

A dial gauge can indicate changes in the target's warpage or eccentricity in detail. Dial gauges come in two types: the spindle type, which has a stroke of several millimeters, and the lever type, which uses the dial to increase the rotation angle of the cantilever.

What is warpage in FEM? ›

Warp Angle is a way to measure how far is a quadrilateral element from being planar. When you check your mesh, Creo Simulate uses the Warp Angle quality measures to highlight elements exceeding the maximum warp angle.

What is acceptable shrinkage? ›

The average inventory shrinkage rate differs depending on the industry of the business. However, experts believe an ideal inventory shrinkage rate should be between 1 and 2 percent. Although, it is wise to make sure you record as little inventory shrinkage rate as possible.

Does shrinkage increase deflection? ›

Drying shrinkage is defined as the contracting of a hardened concrete mixture due to the loss of capillary water. This shrinkage causes an increase in tensile stress, which may lead to cracking, internal warping, and external deflection, before the concrete is subjected to any kind of loading.

What is the main objective of warping? ›

The main objective of warping is to prepare a warp sheet of desired length containing a desired number of yarns that are wrapped on a flanged barrel in such a manner that tension in each yarn and density of yarn mass in the cylindrical assembly are maintained within a given tolerance level throughout the wrapping of ...

What is high speed warping? ›

High speed warping also called Beam warping/Direct warping. In high speed warping the yarn is wound parallel on the warping beam. All the yarns are wound at once and simple flanged beam is used. It is a very high speed process and is used for making fabric of single colour.

Why is warping important? ›

Warping is the process of combining yarns from different cones together to form a sheet. The important point in the warping is to preserve the yarn elongation and maintain it at uniform level. This is done to achieve a better performance during weaving in terms of low end breakage rate.

What are the quality parameters of the mesh? ›

The major types of degeneration are Aspect Ratio, Skewness, Jacobian Ratio, Warping Factor, Maximum Corner Angle, Orthogonal Quality, Parallel Deviation, Taper, Curvature distortion and mid-size node position.

What is warping short answer? ›

: to twist or bend (something) into a different shape. [+ object] The wood was warped by moisture.

What are the facts need to be checked before preparing the warp? ›

Basic Requirements of Warping:
  • The yarns in the sheet should be in a uniform spacing.
  • The yarns in the sheet should be in a uniform tension.
  • The yarns in the sheet should be of a predetermined length.
  • The sheet should be containing a predetermined number of ends.
  • There should be no broken end in the beam.

What is the effect of warping? ›

The warping deformation is an unusual distortion which characterizes thin-walled open section beams. This phenomenon, usually neglected for most of structural elements, appears in presence of transverse loads, in particular if they cause torsional effects.

What warping should not do? ›

* The warping speed should not be changed during process, speed change during the process may change the length of section or tension of warp. * All the sections should have an equal number of ends if possible. * Section width should be set correctly.

What is the difference between sectional and direct warping? ›

Sectional warping is a two stage process which is normally used to produces fancy fabrics by using weave and color effect. In textile weaving, this system is known as indirect system or indirect warping.
Difference Between Sectional Warping and High Speed Warping.
SL No.High Speed WarpingSectional Warping
15It is a popular process.It is not popular as high speed warping.
14 more rows
Oct 30, 2016

How can I reduce warping? ›

Prevent Warping - You Can Do It
  1. Causes of Warping. ...
  2. Use a heated bed. ...
  3. Print in an enclosed print chamber. ...
  4. Choose the right location for your 3D printer. ...
  5. Turn off the material fan for the first few layers. ...
  6. Improve bed adhesion with adhesives or a suitable bed surface. ...
  7. Adjust your slicer settings. ...
  8. Thoroughly clean your print bed.

How do you deal with warping? ›

Common Solutions
  1. Use a Heated Bed. Many machines come equipped with a heated bed that can help keep the bottom layers of your part warm throughout the print. ...
  2. Disable Fan Cooling. By now, you probably realize that cooling can be a problem for parts that tend to warp. ...
  3. Use a Heated Enclosure. ...
  4. Brims and Rafts.

How can you avoid warpage? ›

Solution: Increase residence time by adding time to the cooling process of the cycle. This will ensure the material receives the proper amount of residence time and eliminate mold warping. If the barrel temperature is too low, the resin is not able to heat up to the proper flow temperature.

How do I know if my mesh is good enough? ›

The most basic and accurate way to evaluate mesh quality is to refine the mesh until a critical result such as the maximum stress in a specific location converges: meaning that it doesn't change significantly as the mesh is a refinement.

How do you improve meshing quality? ›

3. Improve Mesh Quality
  1. Reduce the 'Number of layers': Use at least 1 layer. ...
  2. Increase the 'Overall relative thickness': Keep the range between 10-60%. ...
  3. Reduce the 'Growth rate': Keep the range between 1.1-1.5.
May 20, 2020

What is a good mesh skewness? ›

For 2D, a maximum skewness less than 0.5 and an average of 0.1 are good. For 3D, a maximum less than 0.9 and an average of 0.4 are good. The lower the maximum skewness, the better the mesh. See Section 15.5: Mesh Quality for information on face and cell quality measures in TGrid.


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